King Gardner Family History

Genealogy of the King-McCluskey and Gardner-LeBlanc Families

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201
FamilySearch's Nova Scotia, Antigonish Catholic Diocese, 1823-1905 records baptisms for the following children of Charles Landry and Adelaide Fougère:

1. Marie Odille born January 28 1855
2. Anselme born November 23 1857
3. George born November 15 1861
4. Félicité born September 15 1863
5. Venerande born August 31 18677
6. Adelaide born December 19 1869
7. Anne born November 6 1871
8. Abraham born February 12 1873

Ancestry's 1911 Census of River Bourgeois records Charles Landry Father age 77 born Aug 1833 NS and Lizer Landry Mother age 76 born July 1834 NS residing with Abraim Landry age 38 born Feb 1873 NS and wife Hattie age 39 born Dec 1871 NS.

FamilySearch's Nova Scotia, Antigonish Catholic Diocese, 1823-1905 records the marriage of Abram Landry of River Bourgeois, son of Charles Landry and Adelaide Fougere, and Henriette Boudreau of River Bourgeois, daughter of Pierre Boudreau and Adele Boucher, on January 8 1894 in River Bourgeois. Henriette Boudreau is wife Hattie of Abraim Landry in the 1911 Census of River Bourgeois. This confirms Charles and Lizer Landry residing with Abraim and Hattie Landry in the 1911 Census of River Bourgeois are Charles Landry and Adelaide Fougère.

So, Charles Landry, husband of Adelaide Fougère, died after the 1911 Census.

Charles Landry's age is recorded as follows in various Censuses and his Death Registration:

1861 Census age 20-30, implying a year of birth about 1830-1840
1871 Census age 38, implying a year of birth about 1832-1833
1881 Census age 49, implying a year of birth about 1831-1832
1891 Census age 60, implying a year of birth about 1830-1831
1901 Census age 67, born August 10 1833
1911 Census age 77, born August 1833
1914 Death Reg'n age 82, born about 1831-1832

It is reasonable to believe Charles Landry was born between 1831 and 1833, but it's less certain he was born on August 10 1833. 
LANDRY, Charles (I1907)
 
202 A joint tombstone in St. Joseph's Cemetery, Bras ’d'Or, Cape Breton County states:

Gracie
In loving memory of
Dad Hubert May 22 1909 - Oct 22 1996
Mom Elsie May 14 1914 - _
"Let perpetual light shine on them" 
GRACIE, Hubert (I66)
 
203 A joint tombstone in St. Joseph's Cemetery, Bras ’d'Or, Cape Breton County states:

Richard
Adell 1918 - 1977
Oliver 1916 - 1983
"In loving memory" 
GRACIE, Adele (I105)
 
204 A letter from Irene (King) Vardy dated September 9, 2002 identifies Jack Martin as the wife of Irene King, daughter of Arthur William King and Henrietta Goodyear. Irene (King) Vardy writes "She [Irene King] married late in life to a Jack Martin and they lived outside of New York for some time. When he died she moved back to Scarborough, Ont. and lived in a nursing home there."

Ancestry's 1940 Census of Brooklyn, New York City, King's County, New York records Patrick Martin age 44 born New York and his wife Irene age 44 born Newfoundland. Patrick Martin is a Chauffer for a Silk Firm. There is no-one else residing with them.

Irene's implied year of birth is about 1895-1896 and she was born in Newfoundland, consistent with the birth of Irene, daughter of Arthur William King and Henrietta Goodyear. So, although Irene (King) Vardy's letter identifies Irene King's husband as Jack, this Patrick Martin in the 1940 Census is a candidate to be the husband of Irene, daughter of Arthur William King and Henrietta Goodyear. Possibly Irene (King) Vardy mis-remembered Martin's first name or Jack was his "known as" name. 
MARTIN, Jack (I2118)
 
205 Abraham Dugas' burial in Saint Esprit records his age as 85 ("quatre vingt cinq ans"). But this implies a year of birth about 1740-1741 which is very unlikely given his 5 brothers and sisters born between September 1739 and November 1743. As his sister Marie was born about 1744 to 1745 (age 32 in the 1777 Census of Carleton), it seems more likely Abram was born in or after 1747 which is consistent with Abraham's age of 30 in the 1777 Census of Carleton. DUGAS, Abram (I4787)
 
206 According to a letter from Thomas H. Goodyear dated March 19 1995 and Josiah Goodyear'’s Known History of the Goodyear Family Presently Living at Grand Falls written in 1964 or 1965, the family of Goodyear’'s began in Harbour Grace or nearby Bryant’s Cove, and then moved north west along the Newfoundland shore with some settling in Little Catalina, Cat Harbour, Doting Cove, Muddy Hole (now known as Musgrave Harbour), Ladle Cove, Rocky Bay (now known as Carmanville), and Hall’s Bay.

Presumably, William Gudger is one member of this extended Gudger family, and likely a brother or cousin of James Gudger, John Gudger, and/or Richard Gudger who all married between 1805 and 1815 in Harbour Grace. 
GUDGER, William (I3523)
 
207 According to a letter from Thomas H. Goodyear dated March 19 1995 and Josiah Goodyear’'s Known History of the Goodyear Family Presently Living at Grand Falls written in 1964 or 1965, the family of Goodyear’'s began in Harbour Grace or nearby Bryant’s Cove, and then moved north west along the Newfoundland shore with some settling in Little Catalina, Cat Harbour, Doting Cove, Muddy Hole (now known as Musgrave Harbour), Ladle Cove, Rocky Bay (now known as Carmanville), and Hall’s Bay.

The letter from Thomas H. Goodyear states "the first born was at Briants (sic) Cove in Conception Bay and that we all sprang from that family”.

James Gudger and Susanna French reside in Harbour Grace during the birth of their first 3 children (1808-1812) and in Bryant's Cove during the birth of their next 5 children and death of Susanna French (1814-1829). James Gudger and Susanna French are the only known Gudger family to reside in Bryant's Cove in the early 1800’'s.

The 1836 Census of Cat Harbour records a James Goodyear with 3 Males 14-60 (one is James Gudger), 1 Male under 14, 1 Female 14-60, and no Servants.

James Gudger and Susanna’ French’s daughter Sophia married Elias Earl in October 1828 in Harbour Grace. There is an Elias Earl with 1 Male 14-60, 3 Males under 14, 1 Female 14-60, 2 Females under 14, and no Servants in the 1836 Census of Cat Harbour. FamilySearch’s Newfoundland Vital Statistics,1753-1893 records the baptisms of 3 children of Elias and Sophia Earl in Cat Harbour between 1833 and 1836. It is reasonable to believe Elias Earl in the 1836 Census of Cat Harbour is the son-in-law of James Gudger and Susanna’ French.

James Gudger and Susanna’ French had the following children other than James #1 and Julia who died before 1836: Sarah (bap. January 3 1814), Susanna (born September 24 1816), Mary (born June 10 1821), James #2 (born August 7 1823), and John (born October 10 1824). I believe James #2 and John lived to adulthood, but have no information other than the baptisms of Sarah, Susannah, and Mary.

The known children of James Gudger and Susanna’ French are inconsistent with the 1836 Census of Cat Harbour. James Goodyear’s 1 Male under 14 and 2 Males 14-60 are inconsistent with sons James #2 and John who are both under 14. James Goodyear’s 1 Female 14-60 is inconsistent with Sarah, Susanna, and Mary. There is a gap in births for James Gudger and Susanna’ French between 1816 and 1821. Possibly, another son was born. Also, 2 of Sarah, Susanna, and Mary may have stayed in Harbour Grace (as did James Gudger and Susanna’ French’s daughter Julia who married Moses Butt), married, or died.

Based on their residence in Bryant's Cove, the presence of an older James Goodyear in the 1836 Census of Cat Harbour, and the presence of James Gudger and Susanna’ French's daughter Sophia in the 1836 Census of Cat Harbour; it is reasonable to believe James Gudger, husband of Susanna French, moved from Bryant's Cove to Cat Harbour and is a member of this extended Gudger family. 
GUDGER, James (I3528)
 
208 According to a letter from Thomas H. Goodyear dated March 19 1995 and Josiah Goodyear’'s Known History of the Goodyear Family Presently Living at Grand Falls written in 1964 or 1965, the family of Goodyear’'s began in Harbour Grace or nearby Bryant’s Cove, and then moved north west along the Newfoundland shore with some settling in Little Catalina, Cat Harbour, Doting Cove, Muddy Hole (now known as Musgrave Harbour), Ladle Cove, Rocky Bay (now known as Carmanville), and Hall’s Bay. See Notes for Richard Gudger, husband of Patience unknown, for excerpts from these letters.

Thomas Goodyear states the Goodyear’'’s came ‘"First to Harbour Grace then to nearby Carbonear and on to Catalina, Lumsden, Musgrave Harbour, Ladle Cove … the nascent Grand Falls in 1906"’. As well, Thomas Goodyear states "‘The Goodyears of Catalina I have little knowledge other than to say that 25 or 30 years ago I visited there and found enough evidence to satisfy my curiousity (sic) that we are all part of the same family. Further at about that time I paid a visit to Kenneth Goodyear b. 1882 at his home in Musgrave Harbour. He told me that, as a young man, on board his father’'s fishing schooner they would sometimes put into Catalina where they would visit Goodyear relatives.’"

Josiah Goodyear states ‘"The first landing made by the brothers was at Little Catalina … They all lived there for one winter - two stayed on’ and the balance headed north in the spring."

See Notes for Richard Gudger, husband of Patience unknown, for further excerpts from these letters.

Correspondence from Morley Goodyear states "My grandfather always said the Goodyear's of Trinity Bay, Bonavista Bay, and Conception Bay had one grandfather". Morley is the grandson of George Reubon Gudger who is the son of James Gudger and Ardelina Pike of Carbonear and Little Catalina.

Based on this oral family history, it is reasonable to conclude James Gudger of Little Catalina, husband of Ardelina Pike, is related in some way to the Goodyear families of John Gudger and Elizabeth Whelan, and James Gudger and Susanna French. It is also reasonable to conclude James Gudger, husband of Ardelina Pike, was born in or near Harbour Grace as were John, husband of Elizabeth Whelan, and James, husband of Susanna French.

James Gudger of Little Catalina was born about 1820 based on his age at death of 63 at his burial on December 15 1883 in Catalina United Church Cemetery. There are two James Gudger’'s baptized at Harbour Grace Church of England who were born near 1820:

1. James, son of Richard Goodger and Patience, born January 15 1822 in Harbour Grace South Side
2. James, son of James Gouger and Susanna French, born August 7 1823 in Bryant’'s Cove

Is there any evidence either James, son of Richard Goodger and Patience, or James, son of James Gouger and Susanna French could not be James Gudger, husband of Ardelina Pike?

See Notes for James Gudger, wife of Mary and son of James Gudger and Susanna French, for evidence this James Gudger remained in Cat Harbour until at least 1850 and later moved to Western Arm, Fogo District.

So, the only known candidate to be James Gudger, husband of Ardelina Pike in Carbonear, is James, son of Richard Gudger and Patience.

Unfortunately, there is no direct evidence confirming James Gudger, husband of Ardelina Pike, is James, son of Richard Gudger and Patience.

The first son of James Gudger and Ardelina Pike is named William Richard. William was the name of Ardelina’'s father, and it is consistent that Richard would be the name of James’'’ father. James and Ardelina’'s second daughter Eliza Ann was named after Ardelina’'’s mother. None of James and Ardelina’'s daughters are named Patience.

It is possible James Gudger, husband of Ardelina Pike, is not the son of Richard Gudger and Patience. But, that implies he is the second son James of John Gudger and Elizabeth Whelan, not baptized at Harbour Grace Church of England, or the son of an unknown Harbour Grace Gudger who was not baptized. These possibilities seem less likely.

The above Goodyear oral family history describes a move to Catalina or Little Catalina followed by a move to Cat Harbour. The families of John Gudger and Elizabeth Whelan, and James Gudger and Susanna French are recorded in the 1836 Census of Cat Harbour. Richard, son of John and Elizabeth Gudger, is born September 30 1831 in Cat Harbour according to his baptism at Greenspond Church of England. So, the families of John Gudger and Elizabeth Whelan, and James Gudger and Susanna French likely arrived in Cat Harbour during or slightly before 1831.

The first evidence of Gudger’s in Catalina or Little Catalina are the baptisms of:
1. Louisa, daughter of James and Hesdalena (sic) George (sic) of Catalina, on January 18 1863 in Bonavista Methodist
2. Henrietta age "Six months and 5 days", daughter of James and Ardelina Goodyer of Little Catalina on May 4 1865 at Catalina Methodist

There are many baptisms of Catalina residents in Bonavista Church of England and Bonavista Methodist between 1825 and 1835, but there are no baptism for a Gudger (or variant spelling).

James Gudger and Ardelina Pike arrived much later in Catalina or Little Catalina than when John Gudger and Elizabeth Whelan, and James Gudger and Susanna French arrived in Cat Harbour. This timing is inconsistent with Goodyear oral family history. It is possible the families of John Gudger and Elizabeth Whelan, and/or James Gudger and Susanna French spent time in Catalina or Little Catalina on their way from Harbour Grace to Cat Harbour between 1829 and 1831. But, the family of James Gudger and Ardelina Pike was definitely not with them.

The inscription on James Gudger's tombstone in the cemetery across from Bethany United Church in Catalina, Newfoundland states:

In memory of
JAMES GUDGER
who died
Dec. 14 1883
Aged
63 years

Jesus, Lover of my soul,
Let me to thy bosom fly,
While the nearer waters roll,
While the tempest still is high
Hide me O my Saviour hide
Till the storm of life is past,
Safe into the haven guide,
O receive my soul at last

(Recorded by Jim King on July 29, 2001) 
GUDGER, James (I1069)
 
209 According to a letter from Thomas H. Goodyear dated March 19 1995:

I am enclosing a copy of an article written in 1965 by Josiah, 1884-65. He is uncle of Terry and grandfather of David Macfarlane, author of “Danger Tree”. Josiah told me that Uncle Dickie (Richard 1831) moved on to Hall’s Bay, near Springdale where he had two daughters and a son who drowned thereby ending that line. One of the daughters married a French Canadian from New Brunswick. His name was le Buffe.

According to the Known History of the Goodyear Family Presently Living at Grand Falls written by Josiah Goodyear in 1964 or 1965:

Richard, the youngest, generally called Dickie, … headed on north, finally landing in the bottom of Hall’s Bay, … He raised one son, Jim, who lived to marry and raise several daughters but no sons. Jim himself was drowned in Hall’s Bay and Dickie’'’s line ended there.

FamilySearch’s Newfoundland, Vital Statistics, 1753-1893 records the marriage of Richard Gouger Bachelor of Harbour Grace and Eliza Noseworthy Spinster of Bryants Cove on November 10 1859 at Harbour Grace Church of England; with witnesses Robert Courage and Levi Noseworthy.

Newfoundland and Labrador GenWeb’s transcript of Harbour Grace Church of England records the burial of Eliza Gouger age 22 of Harbour Grace. This Eliza Gouger may be the wife of Richard Gouger.

FamilySearch’s Newfoundland, Vital Statistics, 1753-1893 does not record baptisms for a child of Richard and Eliza Gudger (or variant spelling) from 1859 to 1875. Possibly, Richard Gudger, son of John Gudger and Elizabeth Whelan, first married Eliza Noseworthy and then Jane Eliza Ash. There is no record of the marriage of Richard Gudger and Jane Eliza Ash to determine if Richard Gudger was a widower at this marriage. 
GUDGER, Richard (I3546)
 
210 According to a letter from Thomas H. Goodyear dated March 19 1995:

Some 30 years ago I located and talked to most of the older Goodyears. They ranged in age from 75 to 100. From them I secured much oral history sufficient to satisfy me that all Goodyears in NF are related to some degree and that the first born was at Briants (sic) Cove in Conception Bay and that we all sprang from that family.

Being prolific, energetic and ambitious they followed the fish. First to Harbour Grace then to nearby Carbonear and on to Catalina, Lumsden, Musgrave Harbour, Ladle Cove from where Josiah and family struck out for the nascent Grand Falls in 1906.

The Goodyears of Catalina I have little knowledge other than to say that 25 or 30 years ago I visited there and found enough evidence to satisfy my curiousity (sic) that we are all part of the same family. Further at about that time I paid a visit to Kenneth Goodyear b. 1882 at his home in Musgrave Harbour. He told me that, as a young man, on board his father’s fishing schooner they would sometimes put into Catalina where they would visit Goodyear relatives.

I am enclosing a copy of an article written in 1965 by Josiah, 1884-65. He is uncle of Terry and grandfather of David Macfarlane, author of “Danger Tree”. Josiah told me that Uncle Dickie (Richard 1831) moved to Hall’s Bay.

According to the Known History of the Goodyear Family Presently Living at Grand Falls written by Josiah Goodyear in 1964 or 1965:

In the latter part of the 18th century, a lone Cornishman, one of Cromwell’'s ironsides, Thomas Goodyear by name, landed at Harbour Grace. After a year or so, he married a Miss Vokey, who managed after a period of years to present him with a little family of 14 sons - all six footers and all lived to marry.

Thomas, the grandfather of the Grand Falls Goodyears, and the toughest of the lot …

Some time after the parents died, the boys decided to leave Harbour Grace and head north …

The first landing made by the brothers was at Little Catalina, a well wooded spot at that time. Two of the brothers decided to stay here … They all lived there for one winter - two stayed on and the balance headed north in the spring. They landed at Windmill Bight where they stayed for a year or two. … so they packed up all and moved into Cat Harbour and settled on the South Point, now known as Lumsden South …

It was there they started to marry up with a Gibbons family who had arrived there with some comely maidens …

As before, the ones who did not stay moved on north and landed at Doting Cove where they all stayed for several years. The sea was again taking toll so they moved up to Muddy Hole, now known as Musgrave Harbour. Thomas moved up to Ladle Cove and after setting him up in the usual manner, the three who were left moved up into Rocky Bay, now known as Carmanville. When two were established there, Richard the youngest, generally called Dickie headed on north, … finally landing in the bottom of Halls Bay …

In the meanwhile Thomas married Charlotte Gibbons, who gave him five daughters and one son, Josiah who married Louisa Wellon, eldest daughter of Robert Goff Wellon …

According to a post on Rootsweb from Morley Goodyear on January 26, 2009:

William Richard Goodyear, b. 10 May 1848, Carbonear, South Side, Conception Bay; baptized 13 June 1848, Methodist Church, Carbonear, Conception Bay. He married 25 Nov 1871 at Methodist Church, Catalina to Clementine Johnson. He died 01 Jan 1930 in White Rock, Trinity Bay.

He was the son of James Goodyear/Gudger and Ardelina Prudence Pike. He was b. 15 Jan 1822, Harbour Grace, South Side--Bryant's Cove, Conception Bay; baptized 19 Nov 1822, St. Paul's Anglican Church, Harbour Grace, Conception bay. He married 09 Nov 1843 at Wesley Church, Carbonear by Jnos Adely, Wesleyan Minister. He died 14 Dec 1883, Catalina, Trinity Bay; buried 15 Dec 1883, Methodist Cemetery, Catalina. THIS IS MY GREAT-GREAT-GRANDPARENTS.

He was the son of Richard Gudger/Gouger/Goodger/Gudger and Prudence ??. Richard Goodyear b. abt 1795, Bryant's Cove, Conception Bay. He died 20 July 1830; buried 23 July 1830, records at St. Paul's Anglican Church, Harbor Grace.

He was the son of James Goodyear/Gouger and Mary Vokey (??). I have this James b. abt 1750-1760 POSSIBLY in England. He died before 14 June 1807 at Harbour Grace due to his daughter baptized on June 14, 1807, She was the daughter of the late James Gouger of Harbour Grace.

THIS is my earliest connection to GOODYEAR clan in Harbour Grace area and Bryant's Cove. EXCEPT for one Goodyear noted earlier in Cuppers Cove (now called Cupids).

For evidence supporting the above Gudger/Goodyear oral family history:

1. See Notes for John Gudger, husband of Elizabeth Whelan, concluding the family of John Gudger and Elizabeth Whelan moved from Harbour Grace to Cat Harbour between October 1829 and September 1831.

2. See Notes for James Gudger, husband of Susanna French, for information regarding his move from Bryant's Cove to Cat Harbour after 1829.

FamilySearch’s Newfoundland Vital Statistics, 1753-1893 records the following baptisms of a Gudger/Goodyear or variant spelling in Harbour Grace Church of England before 1800:

1. George, son of John and Rachel Goodshoe of Harbour Grace, baptized August 30 1781
2. Elizabeth, daughter of John and Elizabeth of Harbour Grace, baptized January 29 1783
3. Rachael, daughter of [no entry] Goodshoe of Harbour Main, baptized June 30 1784
4. John, son of John and Rachael Goodshoe of Harbour Grace, baptized June 30 1784
5. Mary, daughter of James and Mary Gouger of Harbour Grace, baptized September 18 1785
6. Frances, daughter of James and Mary Gauger of Bay Roberts, baptized May 16 1790

These baptisms identify 2-4 Gudger families in the 1780’s in Harbour Grace; namely John and Rachel, John and Elizabeth, James and Mary, and the parents of Rachael. Possibly, John and Elizabeth are actually John and Rachel. It’s also possible Rachael’s parents are John and Rachel; Rachael is baptized on the same day as John, son of John and Rachael.

Bonnie Hickey’s transcript of Harbour Grace Church of England marriages on the Newfoundland and Labrador GenWeb states “There are large sections of blank pages in the original marriage register between the years 1785 and 1802." There are no Gudger/Goodyear or variant spelling marriages recorded between 1776 and 1806 in Harbour Grace Church of England.

FamilySearch’s Newfoundland Vital Statistics, 1753-1893 records the following Gudger/Goodyear or variant spelling marriages between 1807 and 1815 in Harbour Grace Church of England.

1. William Gouger Bachelor of Harbour Grace and Amy Fillyar Spinster of Port de Grave December 19 1807; witnesses William Piddle and James Gouger
2. John Gouger Bachelor of Harbour Grace and Elizabeth Whelan Spinster of Harbour Grace December 19 1807; witnesses William Nicholas and Mary French
3. James Gouger Bachelor of Harbour Grace and Susanna French of Harbour Grace December 31 1807; witnesses William Gouger and William Nicholas
(These 3 marriages are listed together and in the above order.)
4. William Gouger Widower of Harbour Grace and Grace Dear Widow of Bryans (sic) Cove November 1 1810; witnesses James Gouger and Jacob Noseworthy

The witnesses suggest a family relationship (brothers or cousins) among William, John, and James.

There is no record of the marriage of Richard Gudger and Patience. They may have married in another parish, and the record was lost or not included in FamilySearch’s Newfoundland Vital Statistics, 1753-1893. Richard Gudger is not recorded as a witness for the above marriages of William, John, and James.

The 1805 Newfoundland Return of Possession in Conception Bay does not record a Gudger or variant spelling. The only Vokey recorded in or near Harbour Grace and Bryant's Cove is Philip Vokey with the plantation immediately before Bryant's Cove (Page 118 No. 762). This plantation is recorded as unoccupied and has no buildings.

Philip Vokey is recorded as occupying a plantation in Northern Cove (Page 113 No. 723). It also has no buildings.

Josiah Goodyear's 1964 or 1965 Known History of the Goodyear Family states "A few years back, the land they lived on at Harbour Grace was still known as the Goodyear property”.

So, at some point, the Gudger's owned property in Harbour Grace.

There are no Gudger/Goodyear baptisms, marriages, or burials recorded at Harbour Grace Church of England between March 1818 (baptism of Amey, data of Richard and Patience Gudger) and September 1822 (baptism of George, son of John Gudger and Elizabeth Whelan). Is this just a coincidence or does it indicate the Gudger families left Harbour Grace from 1818 to 1822 and then returned? 
GUDGER, Richard (I3518)
 
211 According to Acadian Settlement on Île-Royale, 1713-1734, by Bernard Pothier, 1967:

Noël Pinet was from Mines. He appears on the 1724 census of Nerichac as a carpenter and he was issued rations. He appears on the 1726 census of Nerichac as a carpenter and sailor.

The 1752 Census of Île St. Jean for Pointe de l'Est records Noël Pinet age 70 Plowman native of l'Acadie 12 years in the country, wife Rose Henry age 50 native of the same, and children Charles age 18 and Anne age 13. 
PINET, Noël (I1882)
 
212 According to an excerpt from the Boston Evening Post (August 22 1763), "… 220 French neutrals, brought to Liverpool from America in 1756, were embarked on board the Sturgeon, Cape. Bologne, a French cartel" (Source: Acadian & French Canadian Ancestral Home website).

According to the Declarations de Belle-Île-en-Mer (Dictionnaire Généalogique des Familles Acadiennes 1636-1714 Page 1490), Jean(-Jacques) LeBlanc and his wife Madeleine Thériot both died in Southampton. This implies they died between 1756 and 1763. 
LEBLANC, Jean(-Jacques) (I2960)
 
213 According to Bessie (Hunt) King, Reginald was one of the first hockey referees to go overseas. CHIPMAN, Reginald (I1178)
 
214 According to Bessie (Hunt) King, Rose's father was in the British military. UNKNOWN, Rose (I1179)
 
215 According to Bessie (Hunt) King; Julie, at one time, lived on Delaware Avenue in Toronto and she worked at Eaton's in the china department. WISEMAN, Julia (I1174)
 
216 According to Bona Arsenault's History of the Acadians (1994; ISBN 2-7621-1745-3) Page 38:

After having carefully examined the church registers of La Chaussee near the village of ’d'Aulnay, in France, Genevieve Massignon wrote [in Les parlers francais ’d'Acadie] that more than half of the acts entered in the registers from 1620 to 1650 concern family names that are found in the 1671 census in Acadia: Babin, Belliveau (Belliveaux), Bertrand, Bour (Bourg, Bourque), Brault (Breaux), Brun (Lebrun), Dugast (Dugas), Dupuis (Dupuy), Gaudet, Giroir (Girouard), Landry, LeBlanc, Morin, Poirier, Raimbaut, Savoie (Savoy), Thibodeau (Thibodeaux); others such as Blanchard, Guerin and Terriot (Theriault, Theriot) live in the same region of France.

Lengthy research by Genevieve Massignon also shows that the French families who migrated to Acadia between 1636 and 1650, were recruited by ’D'Aulnay from the vast seigneuries that he and his mother owned in the region of Loudunais, France. 
LANDRY, Perrine (I345)
 
217 According to Bona Arsenault's History of the Acadians (1994; ISBN 2-7621-1745-3) Page 38:

After having carefully examined the church registers of La Chaussee near the village of ’d'Aulnay, in France, Genevieve Massignon wrote [in Les parlers francais ’d'Acadie] that more than half of the acts entered in the registers from 1620 to 1650 concern family names that are found in the 1671 census in Acadia: Babin, Belliveau (Belliveaux), Bertrand, Bour (Bourg, Bourque), Brault (Breaux), Brun (Lebrun), Dugast (Dugas), Dupuis (Dupuy), Gaudet, Giroir (Girouard), Landry, LeBlanc, Morin, Poirier, Raimbaut, Savoie (Savoy), Thibodeau (Thibodeaux); others such as Blanchard, Guerin and Terriot (Theriault, Theriot) live in the same region of France.

Lengthy research by Genevieve Massignon also shows that the French families who migrated to Acadia between 1636 and 1650, were recruited by ’D'Aulnay from the vast seigneuries that he and his mother owned in the region of Loudunais, France. 
RIMBAULT, René (I4522)
 
218 According to Bona Arsenault's History of the Acadians (1994; ISBN 2-7621-1745-3) Page 38:

After having carefully examined the church registers of La Chaussee near the village of ’d'Aulnay, in France, Genevieve Massignon wrote [in Les parlers francais ’d'Acadie] that more than half of the acts entered in the registers from 1620 to 1650 concern family names that are found in the 1671 census in Acadia: Babin, Belliveau (Belliveaux), Bertrand, Bour (Bourg, Bourque), Brault (Breaux), Brun (Lebrun), Dugast (Dugas), Dupuis (Dupuy), Gaudet, Giroir (Girouard), Landry, LeBlanc, Morin, Poirier, Raimbaut, Savoie (Savoy), Thibodeau (Thibodeaux); others such as Blanchard, Guerin and Terriot (Theriault, Theriot) live in the same region of France.

Lengthy research by Genevieve Massignon also shows that the French families who migrated to Acadia between 1636 and 1650, were recruited by ’D'Aulnay from the vast seigneuries that he and his mother owned in the region of Loudunais, France. 
SAVOIE, François (I3434)
 
219 According to Charles A. Samson's The Samson Family website (http://www.samsonhistory.com/st-gatien-des-bois-france):

The ancestral home of the Samson's of Quebec and Nova Scotia has been traced back to the region of France known as Normandy. This area was characterized by rich farmlands, large orchards, and picturesque villages. Its agricultural products included dairy, grains, and apples, the cider of which was distilled to a potent spirit called calvados. Much of the old medieval character, such as thatched roofs and half-timbered homes can still be found in the smaller towns of the region.

Our earliest Samson ancestor of record was Toussaint Samson, who lived in the village of St. Gatien-des-Bois. Located about 150 miles north west of Paris, St. Gatien is only a few miles from Deauville on the shores of the English Channel, and almost as close to the port of Honfleur. The name Gatien or Grathien was the name of the Bishop of Tours. In the 17th century, the small village had less than 500 people, with about twenty to thirty Samson families in the area. Today, there are no Samson's in the vicinity of St. Gatien, although the Samson surname is still fairly common in other parts of Normandy.

On November 30, 1641, Toussaint Samson married Catherine Le Chevalier in the parish church of St. Gatien. Unfortunately, neither the bride nor the groom's parents were recorded, and therefore, the Samson lineage has not been traced beyond Toussaint.

Catherine may have been the daughter of Jean (Jehan) Le Chevalier and Isabeau Hébert, as she was the only person by that name born at St. Gatien around that time. She was baptized on August 19, 1607, named by Catherine, wife of Jehan Hébert. However, it was unusual for a woman of 34 years of age to marry for the first time, suggesting that this was not the same Catherine, or possibly that she was a widow when she married Toussaint Samson.

Within two years, the couple had a son. His baptism in the church records reads: “A son for Toussaint Samson was baptized and named Gabriel by Gabriel Samson son of Paul and Suzanne Perrone wife of Paul Samson, Sr. of Aulnes, on August 28, 1643”.

Another child, Jacques, was born four years later in 1647. The couple may have had other children, although no records of others have been found. After eighteen years of marriage, Toussaint Samson died, and was buried in St. Gatien on May 19, 1659. Three years later, his widow Catherine died and was buried on March 5, 1662. These dates were recorded in the church records as follows: "Toussaint Samson was buried at this church, 19 May 1659.   Catherine Le Chevalier, widow of Toussaint Samson was buried at this church, 5 March 1662"

The young Samson brothers, now orphans, decided to leave France, and in 1665 set off for the New World. In January of 1997, a plaque commemorating the Samson brothers was erected in the original church of St. Gatien-des-Bois.

Originally written by Charles A. Samson in December 1997, and revised in March 2010.

Source: “Familles Samson, Tricentenaire au Canada”, July 23, 1967, Roger and Marcel Samson; “Portrait of Normandy”, Derek Pitt and Michael Shaw; “The Normans”, R. Allen. 
SAMSON, Toussaint (I88)
 
220 According to Dave Hammersley (December 13, 2000), the marriage witnesses were A. Cartwright and Dorothy McCluskey. Family F13
 
221 According to Dave Hammersley (December 13, 2000), Tom "was named Thomas after his uncle Thomas Philpot who was killed in action, at Vimy Ridge in 1917 while fighting for Canada. His second name was after my grandmother's maiden name "Alice Bond". His father, Robert J. was from Ireland and his mother, Alice was from England." PHILPOTT, Thomas Bond (I21)
 
222 According to David Goodyear (December 18, 2000), William never married and he died at St. John's at 18 years of age. GOODYEAR, William George (I1281)
 
223 According to David Pike's Family History & Genealogy Resources website, there are no marriages for an Adelaide Pike or a Louisa Pike at Carbonear Church of England from 1820 to 1908, and no instances during this period when an Adelaide Pike or a Louisa Pike witnessed a Carbonear Church of England marriage.

According to David Pike's Family History & Genealogy Resources website, there are no burials for an Adelaide Pike or a Louisa Pike at Carbonear Church of England from 1820 to 1957.

According to David Pike's Family History & Genealogy Resources website, there are no marriages for an Adelaide Pike at Carbonear Methodist Church from 1794 to 1985, and no instances during this period when an Adelaide Pike or a Louisa Pike witnessed a Carbonear Methodist Church marriage.

According to David Pike's Family History & Genealogy Resources website, there are two marriages at Carbonear Methodist Church in a period that someone born in 1845 can be expected to marry:

1. Louisa Pike of Carbonear and Richard Taylor (Fisherman) of Carbonear on May 29 1866. No witnesses are listed. Adelaide Louise Pike would be 20 years old at the time of this marriage.

2. Louisa Pike of Carbonear SS [South Side] and David Oates (Fisherman) of Carbonear SS on December 29 1868. The witnesses are Robert Penny and Betsy Oates. Adelaide Louise Pike would be 23 years old at the time of this marriage. 
PIKE, Adelaide Louisa (I2283)
 
224 According to Decks Awash Vol. 16 No. 2 March - April 1987 located at http://collections.mun.ca/PDFs/cns_decks/DA_Vol16_No02.pdf :

The brig [Thomas Ridley] made many visits to the seal hunt under the command of Captains William Taylor, Hugh E. Horwood, and John Horwood. Captain Hugh Horwood had earlier commanded the Isobel, built by the Newhooks in Catalina as a brigantine and based in Carbonear. 
HORWOOD, Hugh Edmund (I2644)
 
225 According to Denise (Gracie) Fraser in a letter on December 19, 2002:

Emanuel was a private of the First Batallion of Captain Samuel Haden's Company of the King’s Rangers, The Roger's Rangers, during the American Revolution. The majority of this Company is said to have come from New Jersey, but there is no documentation to show where Emmanuel enlisted. He is recorded as being enlisted by Capt. Haden on Nov. 24, 1780. Near the end of the war,1782-1784, this batallion was stationed on a ship in Halifax harbour guarding prisoners. These soldiers spent much of their time on P.E.I. and by the spring of 1784, many of these soldiers stayed there. Emanuel GRACIE is listed among the refugees and disbanded soldiers of the war, applying for land grants in Île. St. Jean, P.E.I., in lot # 32 on May 1st, 1784. They had been drawing provisions up to April 24th of that year. Some of the troops were denied provisions and land. On June 12th, 1784, Emanuel GRAY among others is granted land in lot # 47, which is on the farthest northeastern coast of P.E.I. This is said to be near the area where the Cheveries lived.

The Public Archives of Prince Edward Island has a Warrant of Survey to Thomas Wright, Surveyor General stating he is “required to admeasure and lay out unto the several persons hereafter mentioned, the portions annexed to their names, on that part of Lot No. 32, which has been given up for the benefit of Refugees and Disbanded Troops”. Emanuel Gracie is one of the Privates to be granted 100 acres. The Warrant of Survey is dated May 10 1784.

The Canadiana Héritage website has, as part of the Ward Chipman (Senior and Junior) Fonds C-9818, a Muster Roll of Disbanded Officers, and Discharged and Disbanded Soldiers of the First Battalion of King’s Rangers Settled and Preparing to Settle in the Island of Saint John dated June 12 1784 (http://heritage.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.lac_reel_c9818/58?r=0&s=1 Image 58-59 Page 85-87). The first two named are Samuel Haydon Captain and Edward Mainwarring Captain. The list includes No. 55 Emanuel Gracy (sic) Private granted 100 acres in Lot 47 (located at the far eastern tip of Prince Edward Island known as East Point). He has no women, children, or servants with him. As for most discharged soldiers, Emanuel Gracy (sic) has drawn provisions to April 24 1784.

The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies website contains an image and transcript of a letter published in James Rivington's Royal Gazette (New York) on March 12, 1783 (http://www.royalprovincial.com/genealogy/settle/lndaddr1.shtml). This article describes the advantages of settling on Prince Edward Island and encourages their “Countrymen" to do so. The letter is signed by S. Heyden, Captain, Commanding; Edward Mainwaring, Captain; John Throckmorton, Lieutenant; John Robins, Ensign; Joseph Beers, Ensign; Alexander Smyth, Adjutant; and Lewis Davis, Surgeon; all of the King’s Rangers.

This letter confirms the presence of King’s Rangers in Prince Edward Island after the end of the American Revolution. The letter is dated November 30 1782. A note on the website page states “We the subscribers, (your Countryman and fellow sufferers)“ are “New Jersey men“.

The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies website contains a transcript of a letter from John Marshall, Surgeon to the Hospital, regarding infectious disease prevalent on the prison ship Stanislaus dated January 17 1782 in Halifax. John Marshall investigated after a letter from Lewis Davis, Surgeon to the Kings Rangers, “regarding the Sick of that Corps“. Clearly, the King’s Rangers are guarding the prisoners on the Stanislaus.

The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies website contains the Return of Officers under the command of Major James Rogers at Quebec dated September 28 1779. The Officers named include John Throckmorton Lieut. 1st Battalion, John Robins Ensign 1st Battalion, and Joseph Biers Ensign 5th Battalion. This confirms the King’s Rangers under Captain S. Heyden in Prince Edward Island in the 1780’s was originally the unit initiated by James Rogers. This unit is also known as the King’s American Rangers.

The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies website contains the State of all His Majesty’s Provincial Forces which includes the King’s Rangers in Nova Scotia on October 15 1780.

So, there is evidence Emanuel Gracie was a soldier (Private) during the American Revolution in the King’s Rangers, the King’s Rangers were in Prince Edward Island after the war ended, King’s Rangers disbanded soldiers including Emanuel Gracie were granted land, and some of those from the King’s Rangers in Prince Edward Island were originally from New Jersey. But, we don’t know if Emanuel Gracie was from New Jersey.

According to Paul C. Landry on his ’L'Ardoise, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia website for The Grassie Family:

The Grassie family of L'Ardoise can trace its roots to Emmanuel Grassie (b.abt 1750) son of Gabriel Grasset and Louise ?, and Genevieve Chevarie/Detcheverry (b. July 27, 1761) daughter of Antoine Detcheverry and Marie Pinet. Emmanuel first appears on Île St. Jean (present day Prince Edward Island) where he was granted 100 acres of land. Emmanuel died about 1795, and his widow, Genevieve, then married Benjamin Taylor, who also died before the 1811 census.

By 1811, Genevieve Chevarie appears in the L'Ardoise census, listed as a widow. Living in the house were 3 males between the ages of 14 and 60 (Lazare, Alexis and Jean Grassie), 2 females between the ages of 14 and 60 (Genevieve, widow, and daughter Marie Grassie), 3 males under the ages of 14 (Laurent, Joseph, and Charles Taylor from her second marriage) and 1 female under the age of 14 (Lucie Taylor also from her second marriage), for a total of 8 unmarried individuals. They possessed a total of 7 sheep and 1 horse, but no cattle.

Two of Genevieve and Emmanuel Grassie's sons who married and lived in the L'Ardoise area are Alexis and Jean Grassie. Alexis Grassie married Susan Samson and had 1 known child in the L'Ardoise church records, Marie Grassie b. June 16, 1833. Jean Grassie married Mary MacAskill and had 7 children which were born in the L'Ardoise area between 1835 and 1846. He died at Baddeck in 1874. Alexis and Jean appear in the 1813 Military census who could bear arms but had no property at that time as Alexis Graysie 21 a Mariner from Prince Edward Island and John Graysie 18 a fishermen.

Emmanuel and Genevieve Grassie's third son, Lazare Grassie, married Archange Mathe and had 8 known children. This is the branch of the Grassie family to which most of the Grassie/Gracie family can trace their roots through. Lazare appears in the 1813 Military Census as Laran Graysie listed as being 27 years old and as having been born on Cape Breton Island. He is listed as being  a fishermen living on 3 acres of land at L'Ardoise. With Laran lives 1 adult women, 3 boys and 1 girl. Laran at this time has a horse and no oxen. Laran does not hold title to the land he is living on. 
GRACIE, Emanuel (I61)
 
226 According to Everett Dalton, Lewis served on the H.M.C.S. Niobe Halifax (December 6 1917).

The tombstone for Lewis King in Howley United Church Cemetery is next to the tombstone for Tryphena King and states:

Lewis King
Seaman
Royal Navy Reserve
16 June 1973
Age 80

Lewis King's tombstone is transcribed in the Family History Society of Newfoundland and Labrador Cemetery Transcriptions Collection within Howley Roman Catholic - United Church Cemetery Book 304 (Marker No. 49a). 
KING, Lewis (I1073)
 
227 According to Joseph Small's Diary of Burgeo in Hunt's Island:

Joseph Ingraham, or Engram, as the names were called when the writer came to this country, comes next. He was married, before coming here, to one of the Crewes, sister to Mrs. Hann. They both died long ago. The only daughter that I know of is widow McDonald, now living with her son. Martin died early, a young man. George married Edith Porter, both are dead, but not before he married again to ? Green of Our Harbour. She is now living with her sons. Joseph Ingraham and his wife are long dead. Mrs. Ingraham was a Crewe, a nice woman. Mr. Ingraham was the son of old Grandmother Payne and a brother to Mr. William Taylor.

FamilySearch's Newfoundland, Vital Records, 1840-1949 records a Death Registration for Mary Ingram who died May 20 1907 in Burgeo of Old Age. Her Death Registration does not record her place of birth. Her age is recorded as 84, implying an approximate year of birth about 1822-1823. (Deaths 1907-1910, Volume 05 Image 333 of 418 Page 396 No. 4)

This is the only Death Registration for a Mary Ingram (or variant spelling) between 1891 and 1922 whose age at death is consistent with the approximate year of birth for Mary Crewe, wife of Joseph Ingram (based on the index to FamilySearch's Newfoundland Vital Records, 1840-1949).

Mary Crewe, wife of Joseph Ingram, is the sister of William Crewe, husband of Ann.

Mary Ingram who died May 20 1907 at age 84 was born about 1822-1823.

The Death Registration for William Crewe, husband of Ann, records William Crew died June 2 1895 age 90 born Hermitage Bay, died and buried Deer Island. So, William Crewe, husband of Ann, was born about 1804-1805.

So if Mary Crewe, wife of Joseph Ingram, died May 20 1907 at age 84, she would be 18 years younger than her brother. This seems to be a large age difference.

So, with currently available information, there is reasonable doubt as to the identity of the Mary Ingram who died May 20 1907. 
CREWE, Mary (I2482)
 
228 According to Joseph Small's Diary of Burgeo in Hunt's Island:

Joseph Ingraham, or Engram, as the names were called when the writer came to this country, comes next. He was married, before coming here, to one of the Crewes, sister to Mrs. Hann. They both died long ago. The only daughter that I know of is widow McDonald, now living with her son. Martin died early, a young man. George married Edith Porter, both are dead, but not before he married again to ? Green of Our Harbour. She is now living with her sons. Joseph Ingraham and his wife are long dead. Mrs. Ingraham was a Crewe, a nice woman. Mr. Ingraham was the son of old Grandmother Payne and a brother to Mr. William Taylor.

The last sentence seems to imply "Grandmother Payne" remarried after the birth of her son Joseph and the death of her Ingraham husband to a Payne, and she was also married to a Taylor. 
INGRAM, Joseph (I2483)
 
229 According to Joseph Small's Diary of Burgeo, 1925 in Hunt's Island:

They [William Crewe and his wife from Dawson's Cove] had a daughter who first married James Harris of Ramea. Her second husband was Robert Strickland. Thomas, now of Hunt's represents this family.

Sarah Crewe married James Harris on October 20 1858 in Burgeo. From the date of this marriage, it is likely Sarah Crewe was born prior to 1840 or certainly no later than the very early 1840's.

There is a Death Registration for Sarah Strickland who died November 21 1914 in Burgeo at age 82, implying a year of birth about 1832. She is a candidate to be the wife of James Harris and Robert Strickland.

Also according to Joseph Small's Diary of Burgeo, 1925 under Hunt's Island:

Sarah [daughter of Samuel Porter] married Robert Strickland. Both died before they had a family.

Robert Strickland of Hunt's Island and Sarah Porter of Hunt's Island married September 17, 1856. As they "both died before they had a family", it is reasonable to conclude that Sarah Strickland whose death was registered in 1914 in Burgeo is not Sarah Porter.

The 1921 Census of Newfoundland does not record a Sarah Stickland or Sarah Strickland whose age makes her a candidate to be the wife of James Harris and Robert Strickland. So, it appears that Sarah Crewe, wife of James Harris and Robert Strickland, died before the 1921 Census.

There is only one Death Registration between 1891 and 1922 for a Sarah Stickland or Sarah Strickland whose age makes her a candidate to be the wife of James Harris and Robert Strickland. But, it is possible Sarah Crewe, wife of James Harris and Robert Strickland, died prior to 1891. Joseph Small's Diary of Burgeo does not comment on Sarah Crewe's death. 
CREWE, Sarah (I2462)
 
230 According to Joseph Small's Diary of Burgeo, 1925 under Hunt's Island:

They [William Crewe and his wife from Dawson's Cove] had a daughter who first married James Harris of Ramea. Her second husband was Robert Strickland. 
STRICKLAND, Robert (I2464)
 
231 According to Joseph Small's Diary of Burgeo, 1925 under Hunt's Island:

We also find James Ingraham living here. He came, no doubt, as a shareman to William Crewe since he married a daughter, Mary, whom I forgot to mention on the last page. They had a son, Thomas, who died a bachelor some years after the father and mother. The father was drowned out gunning along with John Northcotte. This was in the seventies.

FamilySearch's Newfoundland, Vital Records, 1840-1949 records a Death Registration for Mary Ingram who died May 20 1907 in Burgeo of Old Age. Her Death Registration does not record her place of birth. Her age is recorded as 84, implying an approximate year of birth about 1822-1823. (Deaths 1907-1910, Volume 05 Image 333 of 418 Page 396 No. 4)

According to Joseph Small's Diary of Burgeo excerpt above Thomas Ingram, son of James Ingram and Mary Crewe, died "some years" after his parents. As Thomas Ingram died in 1903, the Mary Crewe who died May 20 1907 can not be Mary Crewe, wife of James Ingram. 
CREWE, Mary (I2478)
 
232 According to Marcel Barriault in his Descendants of Guillaume Desroches on The Island Register P.E.I. Family Lineages website, Jeanne Grossin was "probably the widow of Jean Geoffrey". GROSSIN, Jeanne (I4354)
 
233 According to Paul Landry's email October 31, 2001:

The interesting twist is that Jean b.1801 was married twice. His first marriage was to Rosalie Pettipas. Rosalie is a big mystery! They had one child, Andre Landry, my great great grandfather. Andre lived with my grandmother for some time before his death. She maintained he was 99 when he passed away. 
LANDRY, André (I933)
 
234 According to Paul Touesnard River Bourgeois Families in the 19th Century website (http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ptouesnard/index.html), Victoire Gracie's husband Simon Fougère is Simon James Fougère born in 1887 in West Arichat and died in 1980. Following Victoire Gracie's death in 1930, Simon Fougère remarried Catherine Anne MacIsaac in 1931.

Ancestry's 1921 Census of New Victoria records Simon Fougere age 34 Fisherman, wife Victoria age 32, and children Ernest age 7, Elsie age 6, Henry J age 3, Murdoch age 2, and Peter age 5/12; all born Nova Scotia.

Nova Scotia Historial Vital Statistics records the Delayed Registration of Birth for Henry Fougere, son of Simon Fougere and Victoria Gracie, born March 14 1917 in New Victoria. The Application states Simon Fougere was married twice; his second wife's first name was Catherine. Also included is an excerpt from the 1931 Census of New Victoria recoding Henry Fougere age 14 living with Henry and Catherine Fougere. So, following Victoire (Gracie) Fougere's death in April 1930, Simon Fougere married a Catherine before the 1931 Census.

Nova Scotia Historial Vital Statistics records the marriage of Simon Fougere age 42 Widower Miner born Arichat W[est?], son of Murdoch Fougere and Annie McPhee, and Catherine (signed Katie) McIsaac age 24 Spinster born Inverness on January 21 1931 in Victoria Mines. It is reasonable to conclude this is the second marriage of Simon Fougère, widower of Victoire Gracie. 
FOUGÈRE, Simon Jacques (I682)
 
235 According to Peter J. Gagné, King's Daughters and Founding Mothers: The Filles du Roi, 1663-1673, (Pawtucket, RI: Quinton Publications, 2001), pp. 15-42:

Between 1663 and 1673, 768 Filles du Roi or “King's Daughters” emigrated to New France under the sponsorship of the French government as part of the overall strategy of strengthening the colony until it could stand on its own without economic and military dependence on France.

In 1663, about 2,500 colonists lived in New France, for the most part on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence between Québec and Montréal. With a constant threat from the Iroquois and the more populous English colonies on the Atlantic coast, the need to populate New France became a growing concern for Louis XIV and his colonial advisors. Through the early 1670s however, men of marriageable age far outnumbered the women of marriageable age. Unable to find a wife in Québec, a great number of male immigrants returned to France after their three-year term of service expired.

Between 1634 and August 1663, while the colony was governed by the Compagnie des Cent Associés, about 262 filles à marier (marriageable girls) were recruited by individuals or by private religious groups who paid their travel expenses and provided for their lodging until they were married. But individual recruiters and private organizations had little success in enticing single women to emigrate to New France, and fewer than ten filles arrived in the colony in most years. In 1663, the King took over direct control of the government of New France and initiated an organized system of recruiting and transporting marriageable women to the colony. On September 22, 1663, thirty-six girls –the first group of Filles du Roi— arrived in Québec.

The recruiting of Filles du Roi took place largely in Paris, Rouen and other northern cities by merchants and ship outfitters. A screening process required each girl to present her birth certificate and a recommendation from her parish priest or local magistrate stating that she was free to marry. It was necessary that the girls be of appropriate age for giving birth and that “they be healthy and strong for country work, or that they at least have some aptitude for household chores.”

The cost of sending each Fille du Roi to New France was 100 livres: 10 for the recruitment, 30 for clothing and 60 for the crossing itself –the total being roughly equivalent to $1,425 in the year 2000. In addition to having the costs of her passage paid by the state, each girl received an assortment of practical items in a case: a coiffe, bonnet, taffeta handkerchief, pair of stockings, pair of gloves, ribbon, four shoelaces, white thread, 100 needles, 1,000 pins, a comb, pair of scissors, two knives and two livres in cash. Upon arrival, the Filles received suitable clothing and some provisions.

All of the Filles du Roi first landed at Québec City where 560 remained, with 133 being sent to Montréal and 75 to Trois-Rivières. While awaiting marriage, they were lodged in houses in dormitory-style settings under the care of a female chaperone or directress where they were taught practical skills and chores to help them in their future household duties. Suitors would come to the house to make their selection, and the directress would oversee the encounters.

When selecting a Fille du Roi, the suitor looked beyond outward appearances and considered the practical attributes of a bride that would be adapted or disposed to the rigors of the colony. The preference seems to have been for peasant girls because they were healthy and industrious, as opposed to city girls who were often considered lightheaded and lazy. Marie de ’l'Incarnation, mother superior of the Ursuline convent at Québec City and one of Québec's early female founders, requested in 1668: “From now on, we only want to ask for village girls who are as fit for work as men, experience having shown that those who are not raised [in the country] are not fit for this country.”

Every Fille du Roi had the right to refuse any marriage offer that was presented. In order to make an informed decision to accept a would-be husband, the girls asked questions about the suitor's home, finances, land and profession. Having a home of one's own was one of the most important considerations for a Fille du Roi. According to Marie de ’l'Incarnation, “The smartest [among the suitors] began making an habitation one year before getting married, because those with an habitation find a wife easier. It's the first thing that the girls ask about, wisely at that, since those who are not established suffer greatly before being comfortable.” After agreeing to marry, the couple appeared in front of a notary to have a marriage contract drawn up, and the wedding ceremony generally followed within 30 days. For the Filles du Roi, the average interval between arrival and marriage was four to five months, although the average interval for girls aged 13 to 16 was slightly longer than fifteen months.

In addition to any dowry of goods that the bride may have brought with her from France, each couple was given an assortment of livestock and goods to start them off in married life: a pair of chickens and pigs, an ox, a cow and two barrels of salted meat. The King's Gift of 50 livres is believed to have been a customary addition to the dowry, but only 250 out of 606 known marriage contracts make reference to an additional dowry given by the King. Once married, there was an incentive to have large families. A yearly pension of 300 livres was granted to families with ten children, rising to 400 livres for 12 children and more for larger families.

In November 1671, Intendant Jean Talon in a letter to the King wrote that the birth of six to seven hundred babies that year confirmed the fertility of the country. He predicted that “without further help from the girls from France, this country will produce more than one hundred marriages in the first few years and many more after that, as time goes by.” Talon advised that it would not be necessary to send more girls the next year in order for the colonists to more easily give their daughters in marriage.

In 1672 France and England declared war on the Dutch republic, requiring a great deal of the attention and finances of the French government. The French authorities decided it was too costly to continue sending Filles du Roi and unnecessary since the colony's own population could provide a sufficient number of marriageable women. In September 1673 the last shipment of Filles du Roi arrived from France, and the program ended. The population of New France had risen to 6,700 people, an increase of 168% in the eleven years since the program had begun. Although the Filles du Roi represent only 8% of the total immigrants to Canada under the French régime, they account for nearly half of the women who immigrated to Canada in the colony's 150-year history. 
BOURGEOIS, Françoise (I3820)
 
236 According to Phillip Wiseman's Burial Record and Death Registration, he was born in Twillingate.

Bill Pritchett's Correspondence in January 2000 states "the older Wiseman, Philip b 1829 moved from Twillingate to LBI [Little Bay Islands] around 1850". However, the article A Brief History of Settlement and People of Little Bay Islands by H. T. Burden states Phillip Wiseman and William Mursell both came to Little Bay Islands from Herring Neck in 1851.

Phillip Wiseman's Tombstone in Little Bay Islands states:

In Memory Of
Philip Wiseman Who Died Jan 18-1900
Aged 70 Years
Blessed Are The Pure In Heart
For They Shall See God 
WISEMAN, Phillip (I1299)
 
237 According to Stephen A. White's article "Les fondateurs de la paroisse d'Arichat, Cap-Breton" about Mathurin LeBlanc:

Through his 10 sons, Mathurin is the ancestor of a great many LeBlanc’'s in West Arichat and Petit de Grat.

See Notes for Mathurin LeBlanc, husband of Modeste-Catherine Fougère, for Stephen A. White's full description of Mathurin LeBlanc, and information about Mathurin LeBlanc's Will.

Mathurin LeBlanc's Will identifies Jean Baptiste as one of his sons.

The 1811 Census of Isle Madame records only one Jean Baptiste LeBlanc who resides in Petit de Grat. There is also a John LeBlanc residing in Grand Digue.

The 1813 Militia Roll of Isle Madame records Baptiste LeBlanc age 32 born Nova Scotia in Petit de Grat, and John LeBlanc age 35 in ’D'Escousse.

John LeBlanc in Grand Digue (in 1811) and ’D'Escousse (in 1813) is believed to be the son of Alexandre LeBlanc and Marguerite Boudrot. See Notes for Jean Leblanc, son of Alexandre LeBlanc and Marguerite Boudrot, for further information.

So, it is reasonable to conclude Jean Baptiste LeBlanc of Petit de Grat is the son of Mathurin LeBlanc and Modeste-Catherine Fougère.

Jean Baptiste LeBlanc submitted the following Land Petition in 1815:

Petitioner, age 35, born in Nova Scotia, has a wife and four children. He asks a title to the lot on which he lives on the south side of Petit Degrat Harbour, east of lot of Francis Martell. Note: complied with. 
LEBLANC, Jean Baptiste (I4908)
 
238 According to Stephen A. White's article Les fondateurs de la paroisse d'Arichat, Cap-Breton:

Michel [Poirier] and Judith [Richard] were in the Fortress of Louisbourg, during the last siege; where their daughter Anastasie was born, in a casemate, and was always known, as a consequence, as Anastasie Casemate.

There is no record of the baptism of an Anastasie Poirier in 1758 in the existing Louisbourg Parish records. 
POIRIER DITE CASEMATE, Anastasie (I1720)
 
239 According to Stephen White (November 1, 2001), an 1831 Land Record describes Jean as the eldest son of Abraham Landry and Ursule Forest.

FamilySearch's Nova Scotia Probate Records, 1760-1993 - Richmond County - Will books, 1831-1869, vol. 1-2 - Pages 420-412 (Image 224 of 447) records the Will of "John Landrie late of Little Arichat". The date of the Will is February 22 1847 and the Will is attested on May 13 1848, indicating Jean Landry died between these dates. The Will identifies Jean Landry's wife as "Margaret Landrie" who is the sole beneficiary and executor. 
LANDRY, Jean (I950)
 
240 According to the 1805 Return of Possession in Western Bay, James King and John Crowley cut and cleared a fishing room in Western Bay in 1784. They also received land as a gift from James Curtis in 1800, and cut and cleared other land in 1800.

James King of Western Bay married Mary Crowley of Western Bay on November 26 1804 in Harbour Grace Church of England. The witnesses were William King (very likely James' brother) and Oliver Penny. Oliver Penny is an early resident of Western Bay, and is in the 1805 Return of Possession for Western Bay. There is no William King in the 1805 Western Bay Return of Possessions.

In Western Bay, there is a James King burial on July 28 1847 at age 69, and a Mary King burial on May 14 1869 at age 86. As there is no evidence of other James or Mary King’'s in Western Bay who could have married in 1804, I believe they are the burials for James King and Mary Crowley who married in 1804.

The 1806 Will of James King Senior of Bradley’s Cove makes bequests to his sons William (eldest son), James, and John (youngest son); and to daughter Mary (youngest daughter). William and John receive equal shares in James Senior’'s Bradley’s Cove Room, and John also receives James Senior'’s "‘part of the boat and everything else as I posess at present’". James Junior receives £25, but no property or land. Mary receives £20.

James King of Western Bay was buried on July 28 1847 at age 69, implying he was born about 1777-1778, and so is of the right age to be the son of James King Senior of Bradley’s Cove. James King Senior’'s eldest son William is believed to have been buried Apr 17 1849 in Bradley’s Cove at age 75, implying he was born about 1773-1774. James King Senior’'s son James is younger than William who was the eldest son of James King Senior of Bradley’s Cove.

James King of Bradley’s Cove is referred to as James King Senior in the 1805 Return of Possession, and he refers to his son James in his Will in 1806. But there is no evidence of the son James in Bradley’s Cove, not in the church records or in the 1830'’s Voters Lists. The nearest James King is in Western Bay.

The only King'’s baptizing children in Western Bay and Bradley’s Cove between 1817 and 1833 are John King of Bradley’s Cove and James King of Western Bay.

Possibly, James King Senior did not bequeath property or land to his son James in his Will because his son James already had a Room. James King Senior'’s bequest of £25 to James was more generous than his bequest of £20 to his daughter Mary. So, the bequest to son James was substantial.

One of the witnesses to the marriage of James King and Mary Crowley in 1804 was William King. There is no record of a William King in Western Bay in the 1805 Return of Possession. In his 1806 Will, James King Senior refers to ‘"William King my eldest son that is in partnership with me in the boat’". So, there is a William King nearby in Bradley’s Cove, and he has a brother James.

Oliver Penney is the other witness to the marriage of James King and Mary Crowley in 1804. Oliver Penney also witnessed the marriage of Mary King (the sister of James King of Bradley’s Cove) and Stephen Halfyard in 1809. These are the only two marriages in Harbour Grace that Oliver Penney witnessed between 1776 and 1825.

There are some inconsistencies with the premise that James King of Western Bay is the son of James King Senior of Bradley’s Cove. These inconsistencies are:

The 1805 Western Bay Return of Possession seems to imply that John Crowley and James King of Western Bay cut and cleared land in 1784 and 1800. However, James King, the son of James King of Bradley’s Cove, was too young to clear land in 1784 as he was younger than his brother William who was born about 1773-1774.

There are 4 distinct areas claimed by John Crowley and James King in the 1805 Western Bay Return of Possession. One area is dated 1784 in the available transcription, two are dated 1800, and the other has no date. Possibly, the original record or its transcription did not distinguish who cleared the land in 1784. John Crowley and James King are identified as the ‘Party Claiming Right’ and as the ‘Present Occupiers’ in 1805. This can be so even though James King may not have helped clear the one area in 1784.

The 1832 Voter’s List for Western Bay lists James King Senior and James King (of James). James King Senior of Bradley’s Cove died before 1826 as his Will was probated in 1826, So James King Senior of Bradley’s Cove can not be the James King Senior in the 1832 Voter’s List for Western Bay.

If James King of Western Bay is the son of James King of Bradley’s Cove, then James King Senior and James King (of James) can only be James King who married Mary Crowley and his son James who married Jane Fahey in 1836. But, could James who married Jane Fahey in 1836 really have satisfied the voting criteria in 1832?

There is only one James King in the 1835 and 1839 Voter’s Lists for Western Bay. James King who married Mary Crowley died in 1847. Perhaps, this James King no longer satisfied the voting criteria in 1835 and 1839. John Crowley was not in the 1832 Voter’s List although he did not die until 1838. So, James King’'s absence from the Voter’s Lists is at least consistent with John Crowley who died in 1838, and is not on the 1832 or 1835 Voter’s Lists.

On March 4 1808, James King of Western Bay signed the following Promissory Note with John Gosse, Thomas Chancey, and George Welch Ledgare as a result of the debt he had accumulated with them. Only the pertinent sections of this Promissory Note were transcribed from the Miscellaneous Deeds and Wills Volume 14 Page 414 located on microfilm at the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador (PANL).

This Indenture ... the fourth day of March ... one thousand eight hundred and eight Between James King of Western Bay ... Planter of the one part and John Gosse, Thomas Chancey, and George Welch Ledgare of Carbonear ... debt with them amounting in value to the sum of Thirty Six Pounds ... all that Fishing Room or Plantation situated in Western Bay and now in the Possession of him the said James King being bounded on the East by James Delaney and on the West by John Kennedy's Room, on the South by the Woods, on the North by the Sea. And all and [Singular?] the Dwelling House, Out Houses, Stages, Flakes, and ... James King ... shall well and truly pay on or before the Twentyeth (sic) day of September in each year ... the full sum of Nine Pounds of lawful money ... or the value thereof ...

Witnesses: Samuel Rumson
Richard Bayley

Signed: James King (his mark) 
KING, James (I2608)
 
241 According to the Acadians in Gray website in the "Acadians Aboard English Ship Britannia 1769" Appendix, the youngest known child of Étienne Rivet and Claire Forest is son Theodore Rivet who was born about 1754-1755. There is no known child born after the expulsion which began in 1755. So, Claire Forest may have died before or after the expulsion, and may have died in Acadia or in Maryland. FOREST, Claire (I3343)
 
242 According to the Birth Registration (Nova Scotia) Application for Mary Bertha (k.a. Bert) King, her parents Frederick George King and Minnie Coombs married on July 10 1912. MInnie Coombs appears in the 1911 Census of Sydney, Cape Breton as single, residing with her sister Eliza (Coombs) Mortimer; and the first known child of Frederick George King and Minnie Coombs (i.e. Ada Lillian) was born in August 1913 according to her Birth Registration.

But, there is no record of their marriage on the Nova Scotia Historical Vital Statistics website, or in Newfoundland as per FamilySearch's Newfoundland Vital Records 1840 to 1949, Marriages 1909-1912 and 1913-1916. Nova Scotia and Newfoundland are the most likely locations for their marriage.

Ancestry's Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1801-1928 Collection also has no marriage record for Frederick George King and Minnie Coombs, based on separate searches for Frederick King and for Minnie Coombs marriages between 1911 and 1915. 
Family F1105
 
243 According to the Devoe - deVaux Family History 1691-1991 (pages 46-47):

Acadians had been at La Baie des Espanols (now Sydney) as early as 1752 when as many as 183 persons, mostly Acadians, had lived there. A short distance to the northwest lay Petit Bras ’d'Or (later Little Bras ’d'’Or) where in 1753 lived some 129 people, again, mostly Acadian. The Deportation of 1758 left few at that place but after the total conquest of Canada by the British they began to return. In the early part of the 19th century the place had become known as “the French Village of Labrador” as well as Little Bras ’d'’Or. The lakes, incidentally, were originally known as the “Labrador Lakes” from whence came their present name (not, as some suggest, “Arm of Gold”, as a translation of “Bras d’’'Or”). In 1815 there were 20 to 25 Acadian families there. Though since 1784 Roman Catholics were allowed to own land through Crown Leases, the maps show that of some one hundred grants/leases made in the immediate Bras d’’'Or area the only old Acadian names are Lejeune, Forest, and Fortin (Forton). A few others appear to be of French or possible French origin, i.e., Marche and White (LeBlanc ?).

Many Acadians from the Isle Madame area frequented this location, fishing in the summer months, and it is probable that the men who moved their families, including Pierre [deVaux], had done this. Tradition tells us that in 1848 the families of Pierre [deVaux], François Regis Richard, Placide Dugas and Pascal LeBlanc sailed to Little Bras d’’'Or in four “pinks” (small, two-masted vessels with pointed bow and stern, some 30-40’ in length). We are told the move was precipitated by the fact that Pascal LeBlanc had “had a fight with Father Courteau” the pastor at St. John the Baptist Church. The teller, an elderly man in 1962, gave the parish priest’s name without prompting. The records at River Bourgeois confirm his memory in this regard.

The journey appears to have included the entire family of each man, including in at least some cases, their married children. Sabine [deVaux] and her husband André Dugas were among the travellers and later records at St. Joseph Church, Little Bras d’Or, record the marriages of many of the children of Regis Richard. Pierre’'’s family at the time included at least eight minor children ranging from Edward aged 17 to Melanie aged 2. The last child of Colombe and Pierre, William, is believed to have been born at Little Bras ’d'’Or not long after the migration.

An article in the Cape Breton News Archive Archive for May 13th, 2009 at https://caperfrasers.wordpress.com/2009/05/13/ states:

Deveau

A very prominent family name of Alder Point is Deveau (also spelled Des Veaux and Devoe the original spelling being de Veaux). They were a seagoing family of ship masters the brothers, Captains Peter, Charles and Simon. Captain Simon Deveaux married Margaret Walsh a daughter of John Walsh and Margaret Kidd November 2, 1860 at Bras ’d'’Or. John Kidd had the land grant that now includes the property where St. Anne’'s Roman Catholic Church stands. Captain Simon and Margaret had 15 children. One of those children, Howard, born in 1880, married Walter Dugas’’' sister Agnès. Simon’'s son Charles born in 1874 was the father of Genevieve Walker, an only child who grew up to marry George Walker and become the mother or twenty-one children. Genevieve lives today in Alder Point on the property where she grew up and enjoys good health and is now into her nineties.

Captain Simon Deveau died May 2, 1926 at Deveau Point. Captain Peter Deveau (1832-1899) married Charlotte Richard in 1854, at Bras ’d'’Or, approximately 153 years ago. One to their sixteen children, James Willis Deveau, born 1876 was the father of Mary Deveau Thurbide who lived in the Deveau family home which if still standing would be over a 160 years old.

The foregoing individuals were in my opinion the original pioneers of Alder Point. There then was an influx of others who could be classified as settlers. These folks cleared their own land, were for the most part without servants, and made their living off farming and fishing. Those who had means and the entrepreneurial spirit started enterprises that gained them wealth and provided employment for others. In the early 1900’s with the opening of the coal mines everything changed and we then see an influx of people from other parts of Cape Breton, the mainland, as well as other newcomers from Newfoundland and Europe. Members of families who traditionally earned their keep through fishing and farming commenced leaving these pursuits for the more lucrative (cash money) work in the coal mines.

It is reasonable to believe Pierre deVaux is recorded in the 1811 Census of Grand Digue (now Poulamon) as the 1 Male under 14 residing with Joseph De Veaux, and in the 1813 Militia Roll for ’D'Escousse and Grand Digue as the 1 Boy residing with Joseph Deveau age 64.

The 1838 Census of Grand Digue to River Inhabitants records Peter Devaux [and] Colmbe (sic) occupation Fisherman with 3 Males under 6, 1 Male 6-14, 1 Female 6-14, and 1 Female over 14 for a total of 8.

The 3 Males under 6 are sons Peter, Charles, and Simon; and the 1 Male 6-14 is son Edward. Either the Female 6-14 or the Female over 14 is daughter Sabine. I do not know the identity of the other Female. She may be a daughter who is as yet unidentified, a daughter who died young, or a servant.

The Census section containing Peter deVaux and Colombe Landry covers from the Ferry at Grand Digue to the lower part of River Inhabitants. Peter deVaux and Colombe Landry are Family 6 and it is reasonable to believe they reside in Grand Digue (now Poulamon).

The 1861 Census of Sydney Mines, Cape Breton County (Polling District 4 Abstract 6 Family 10) records Peter Desaveon (sic) with 2 Males and 5 Females, consisting of 1 Female 5-10, 1 Male 10-15, 2 Females 15-20 Single, 1 Female 20-30 Single, 1 Female 50-60 Married, and 1 Male 60-70 Married.

Except for the 1 Female 5-10, they are consistent with the family of Pierre deVaux and Colombe Landry who reside in or near North Sydney in 1861. Perhaps Pierre deVaux and Colombe Landry had a daughter after son William Elias and she died young.

Son William Elias is the 1 Male 10-15; daughters Melanie Adele and Ann Philomide are the 2 Females 15-20 Single; daughter Colombe (Colette) is the 1 Female 20-30 Single; mother Colombe Landry is the 1 Female 50-60 Married; and father Peter deVaux is the 1 Male 60-70 Married. Despite the unusual surname, it is reasonable to conclude this is the family of Pierre deVaux and Colombe Landry. None of their married children (Sabine, Edward, Peter, Charles, or Simon) reside with them.

Perhaps the enumerator's notes were transcribed onto the final Census pages, and the transcriber could not decipher Peter's surname?

Pierre DeVaux's ages are recorded as follows in the 1861 and 1871 Census, and in his Death Registration:

1861 Census age 60-70, implying year of birth about 1790-1800
1871 Census age 70, implying year of birth about 1800-1801
1877 Death Reg’'n age 80, implying year of birth about 1796-1797

The 1813 Militia Roll for ’D'Escousse and Grand Digue records the following Deveau's in Grand Digue:

1. Joseph Deveau age 64 born Nova Scotia Fisherman with 1 Woman, 1 Boy, and no Girls
2. Joseph Deveau Jr age 24 born Cape Breton Mariner with no Women, Boys, or Girls
3. Simon Deveau age 18 born Cape Breton Mariner with no Women, Boys, or Girls

They are Joseph DeVaux, husband of Anne LeBlanc, and sons Joseph and Simon. As Pierre is not listed in the Militia Roll, he is younger than Joseph and Simon. The 1813 Militia Roll for ’D'Escousse and Grand Digue records 6 members age 16. So, it is reasonable to believe Pierre is younger than 16. Thus, it is reasonable to believe he was born about 1799. 
DEVAUX, Pierre (I141)
 
244 According to the Diary of Joseph Small in Hunt's Island:

William Crewe came here with his wife, from Dawson's Cove. They had a son, William, born, no doubt, before coming, as I find the next son, Martin, was baptized in 1847. They had a daughter who first married James Harris of Ramea. Her second husband was Robert Strickland. Thomas, now of Hunt's, represents this family. One daughter, Anne, married Thomas Parsons, an Englishman, in 1855. He died years ago and Mrs. Ann Parsons married John Northcotte. Both are now dead. They had lived at Deer Island. There may have been others of this family but I have no records at hand and the memory of this family is gone. They moved to Deer Island in 1870. They had sons, John and Martin. 
CREWE, William (I2460)
 
245 According to the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Vol. II (available at http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/bourg_abraham_2E.html):

BOURG, ABRAHAM, deputy representing Upper Cobequid, Nova Scotia,1720–26; b. at Port Royal (Annapolis Royal, N.S.) 1662, son of Antoine Bourg and Antoinette Landry; married in 1683 Marie Brun, daughter of Vincent and Marie Breaux; date of death unknown. Abraham Bourg was one of the deputies chosen by the Nova Scotia Council to represent the Acadian districts in 1720, under the governorship of Richard Philipps*. He was apparently released from his duties in 1726 at his own request, because of lameness and infirmity. On 16 Sept. 1727 he, Francis Richards, and the deputies Charles Landry and Guillaume Bourgeois refused to take the oath of allegiance to George II. Lieutenant-Governor Lawrence Armstrong maintained, moreover, that they had assembled the inhabitants a day earlier than they had been ordered. Armstrong charged that “instead of persuading them to their duty by solid arguments of which they were not incapable they [the deputies] frightened them . . . by representing the oath so strong and binding that neither they nor their children should ever shake off the yoke.”

For their alleged opposition they were committed to prison. It was ordered that Bourg, however, “in consideration of his great age,” should be allowed to leave the province as soon as possible, but without his goods. As the others were released after a short time, it appears unlikely that Abraham Bourg actually left. An oath of 1730 bears a signature which may be his. It is not known when Bourg died, but it may have been after 13 April 1736, when Marie Brun's burial record identifies her as the wife (not widow) of Abraham Bourg.

According to the Dictionnaire Genealogique Des Familles Acadiennes English Supplement Biographical Notes for Abraham Bourg & Marie Sébastienne Brun (Pages 50-51):

Aug 1695 (old style): Abraham Bourg took the oath of allegiance to the King of England at Port-Royal; he signed.

29 Aug 1714: The name of Abraham Bourg, an inhabitant of the lower part of the river, appears on the "list of those of the inhabitants of Acadia who embarked on the King's vessel La Marie Joseph to go to Île Royale". Thereafter, the names of his sons Pierre, Michel, and Charles, as well as those of his sons-in-law Pierre Broussard and Jean Fougère are to be found in the censuses of 1724 and 1726 at Port-Toulouse.

3 July 1726: Abraham Bourg, a resident of Port-Royal and "one of the deputies", signed as a witness the marriage record of the surgeon Jean-Baptiste Massier (Rg Port Royal). This signature is similar to the one that he had placed on the marriage record of his son Pierre in 1714.

16 Sep 1727: In concert with Charles Landry and Guillaume Bourgeois, he refused to take the oath of allegiance to King George II. The three delegates were imprisoned for "alleged opposition", but Bourg was thereafter allowed to leave the province as quickly as possible, without taking any of his property with him, "in consideration of his great age". One must not confuse this Abraham Bourg with his nephew of the same name who was a deputy of the Acadians of Upper Cobeguit. 
BOURG, Abraham (I443)
 
246 According to the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Vol. III (available at http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/bourg_alexandre_3E.html):

BOURG, dit Belle-Humeur, ALEXANDRE, notary, king's attorney; b. 1671 at Port-Royal (Annapolis Royal, N.S.), son of François Bourg and Marguerite Boudrot; d. 1760 at Richibucto (N.B.).

Alexandre Bourg settled about 1694 at Grand Pré, Nova Scotia, where he married Marguerite Melanson, the daughter of Pierre Melanson, dit La Verdure, and Marguerite Mius ’d'Entremont; of this marriage at least 16 children were born. Immediately after the conquest of Acadia by the British in 1710 he was appointed notary for Minas Basin. On several occasions he was chosen to represent the Acadians of his region in dealing with the government at Annapolis Royal. Thus he was among the delegates sent by the Acadians of Minas to Annapolis in 1720 at the request of Governor Richard Philipps after the latter had tried to have them take the oath of allegiance. After the same Acadians had refused to take the oath in 1727 Bourg was called to Annapolis to explain their conduct.

In December 1730 Governor Philipps granted Alexandre Bourg a commission as king's attorney for Minas, Pisiquid (Windsor, N.S.), Cobequid (near Truro, N.S.), and Chignecto, with authority to receive moneys due and annuities and to handle all cases of seizure of property and escheat. In 1731 he was accused of negligence in his accounts, and in September 1737 the lieutenant governor, Lawrence Armstrong, dismissed him from his functions. He was replaced by François Mangeant, dit Saint-Germain. On 27 May 1740, Paul Mascarene, Armstrong's successor, who considered Bourg an old acquaintance, reinstated him as notary and tax-collector.

In 1742 Bourg and some settlers from Minas helped in finding belongings stolen by Indians from an English merchant vessel near Grand Pré. In 1744 Bourg was again accused of negligence in carrying out his duties and was even accused of having collaborated, along with his son-in-law Joseph Leblanc, dit Le Maigre, with François Du Pont* Duvivier's troops during the invasion of Nova Scotia; on 17 December Bourg was suspended from office. He was taken to Annapolis Royal with Joseph Le Blanc and subjected to a close interrogation by Mascarene and the council. As punishment his office as notary at Minas was taken from him for good.

Bourg may have left Acadia at the beginning of the 1750s when several thousand Acadians emigrated to Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) and Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island). In any event we meet him again in 1752 at Port-Toulouse (St Peters, N.S.), at the home of Joseph Le Blanc, who had been living there for three years. Bourg escaped the deportation of the Acadians in 1755 and the evacuation of Île Royale after the British capture of Louisbourg in 1758 [see Wolfe]. He seems to have taken refuge at Richibucto, where he died at 89 years of age.

C. J. ’d'Entremont

AN, Col., E, 277, ff.17–20; Section Outre-Mer, G1, 466, pièces 8, 13, 24, 25, 26, 27. Diocesan Archives (Baton Rouge, La.), Registres de St-Charles des Mines (Grand-Pré), 1707–1748 (baptêmes); 1709–1748 (mariages et sépultures) (copies at Diocesan Archives, Yarmouth, N.S., and PAC, MG 9, B8, 12). Coll. doc. inédits Canada et Amérique, II, 175. Coll. de manuscrits relatifs à la N.-F., II, 260. N.S. Archives, I; II; III; IV. PAC Report, 1905, II, pt.{{i}}, 22. Murdoch, History of Nova-Scotia, I, 364, 405, 468, 478, 523; II, 4, 8, 10, 39, 71.

According to the Dictionnaire Genealogique des Familles Acadiennes English Supplement Biographical Notes for Alexandre Bourg dit Bellehumeur & Marguerite Melanson (Page 52):

Aug 1695: Alexandre Bourg took the oath of allegiance to the King of England at Port-Royal; he signed.

24 July 1711: Alexandre Bourg was appointed expert land-surveyor and chosen as judge and notary on the recommendation of the missionary at Les Mines, Father Bonaventure, Recollet.

17 Dec 1744: The Council of Nova Scotia decided to suspend Alexandre Bourg from the post of notary and to appoint René LeBlanc in his place. 
BOURG DIT BELLEHUMEUR, Alexandre (I328)
 
247 According to the Dictionnaire Genealogique Des Families Acadiennes English Supplement Biographical Note for Jean(-Baptiste) Corporon the elder and Marie Pinet (Page 92):

19 June 1714: Jean “Corporeaux”, his wife, and three children from Les Mines were among the inhabitants of Acadia who came to view land on Île Royale on Bernard Marres dit LaSonde's sailing vessel. 
CORPORON, Jean(-Baptiste) l'aine (I4218)
 
248 According to the Dictionnaire Genealogique Des Families Acadiennes English Supplement Biographical Note for Maurice Vigneau and Marguerite Comeau (Page 332):

25 Aug 1722: Record in which Msgr. de Saint-Vallier declared to have absolved Sr Maurice Vigneau, from Port-Toulouse, of the excommunication issued against him by Father Justinien Durand, the vicar-general. Sr Vigneau had advanced publicly certain propositions contrary to the Catholic faith. 
VIGNEAU, Maurice (I1655)
 
249 According to the Dictionnaire Genealogique Des Families Acadiennes English Supplement Biographical Note for Pierre Comeau and Rose Bayon (Page 84):

Pierre Comeau had two sons who bore the given name Pierre; one was known as Pierre the elder, nicknamed “’l'Esturgeon” (the Sturgeon), and the other as Pierre the younger, nicknamed “des Loups-Marins” (of the Seals). Several miles above the fort, there was on the Annapolis River a spot that was called in the eighteenth century “’l'Esturgeon.” The nickname given to Pierre Comeau the elder derived from that place, because that is where he settled. 
COMEAU DIT L'ESTURGEON, Pierre l'aîné (I697)
 
250 According to the Dictionnaire Genealogique Des Families Acadiennes English Supplement Biographical Notes for Abraham Boudrot & Cécile Melanson (Page 40):

Abraham Boudrot from Port-Royal was one of those who, during the War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697), obtained passes from Commandant Villebon. Boudrot had traded regularly with Boston since the 1680's and had gained the friendship and respect of many Massachusetts merchants … 
BOUDROT, Abraham (I390)
 

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